MEK Studios tag:www.mekstudios.com,2013-02-10:/notional/20130210055031443 Critical thinking to start your day.<br>A blog of ideas, thoughts, and concepts for consideration. Copyright (c) 2013 Michael E. Kirkpatrick 2019-03-22T20:28:01-07:00 Michael E. Kirkpatrick http://www.mekstudios.com michael@mekstudios.com A Bug in the Apple Newsroom (Feed) tag:mekstudios.com,2019-03-22:/2019/03/a-bug-in-the-apple-newsroom-feed 2019-03-22T20:28:01-07:00 2019-03-22T20:28:01-07:00 Michael E. Kirkpatrick <p>Hey Apple Newsroom team! You&#8217;ve got some bugs in your RSS feed.</p> <p>I discovered this bug recently after adding the Apple Newsroom feed to my <a href="https://feedly.com/">Feedly</a>. The expected behavior when you click on the title of an article in Feedly is that it takes you to the article on the source website. In Apple Newsroom&#8217;s case, it took me to a new tab. Odd.</p> <p><img src="/images/notional/newsroom-bad-url.png" title="Feedly article for the new Apple AirPods with a title link that points back to Feedly" alt="Bad URL in Apple RSS feed" srcset="/images/notional/newsroom-bad-url-2x.png 2x" class="img-fluid"></p> <p>I wrote Feedly support and got a quick reply from the CEO <a href="http://www.twitter.com/edwk">Edwin</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p>Thanks for the heads up Michael,<br /> We will take a look at this tomorrow.<br /> -Edwin<br /> Edwin K<br /> CEO</p> </blockquote> <p>I dug a little bit more, curious mostly, and found some interesting things.</p> <h2>The Newsroom RSS Feed</h2> <h3>Not RSS, rather Atom</h3> <p>Despite the feed URL referencing an RSS feed <a href="https://www.apple.com/newsroom/rss-feed.rss">https://www.apple.com/newsroom/rss-feed.rss</a>, the feed is an Atom feed.</p> <pre><code>&lt;feed xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"&gt; </code></pre> <p>That&#8217;s okay, it doesn&#8217;t really matter so long as the XML in the feed validates as Atom, and it does <a href="https://validator.w3.org/feed/check.cgi?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.apple.com%2Fnewsroom%2Frss-feed.rss">successfully validate</a> as a &#8220;valid Atom 1.0 feed&#8221;.</p> <h3>Lots of CDATA</h3> <p>For those who need a refresher, CDATA or character data, as defined by <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CDATA">Wikipedia</a>: &#8220;In an XML document or external parsed entity, a CDATA section is a section of element content that is marked for the parser to interpret purely as textual data, not as markup.&#8221;</p> <p>However, all the content in every tag in the feed begins with <code>&lt;![CDATA[</code>. Odd and unnecessary it seems.</p> <h3>The Bug: No Link Tag</h3> <p>What I discovered is that Apple&#8217;s Newsroom feed is malformed. Specifically, it includes the link to the article, for example the link to the most recent article &#8212; <a href="https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2019/03/airpods-the-worlds-most-popular-wireless-headphones-are-getting-even-better/">AirPods, the world’s most popular wireless headphones, are getting even better</a> &#8212; in the <code>id</code> tag. Again, odd.</p> <pre><code>&lt;id&gt;&lt;![CDATA[https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2019/03/airpods-the-worlds-most-popular-wireless-headphones-are-getting-even-better/]]&gt;&lt;/id&gt; </code></pre> <p>If you hop over to the <a href="https://validator.w3.org/feed/">W3 Feed Validation Service</a>, they&#8217;ve got a nice <a href="https://validator.w3.org/feed/docs/atom.html">summary of the Atom specification</a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4287">RFC 4287</a>. As the page notes, the <code>link</code> element contained in the <code>entry</code> element &#8220;Identifies a related Web page. The type of relation is defined by the <code>rel</code> attribute. A feed is limited to one <code>alternate</code> per <code>type</code> and <code>hreflang</code>. A feed should contain a link back to the feed itself.&#8221;</p> <p>That&#8217;s where the link to the article should be, in the <code>link</code> tag, not in the <code>id</code> tag. The <code>id</code> tag &#8220;Identifies the entry using a universally unique and permanent URI.&#8221;</p> <h3>Link Tag used for Images</h3> <p>The Newsroom feed breaks the Atom standard here as well as it includes not a single <code>link</code> element for the article, but three, and they&#8217;re all images associated with the article not links to the article itself:</p> <pre><code>&lt;link href="https://www.apple.com/newsroom/images/product/airpods/standard/Apple-AirPods-worlds-most-popular-wireless-headphones_03202019_big.jpg" rel="enclosure" title="New AirPods build on the magical experience customers love delivering 50 percent more talk time, hands-free “Hey Siri” and the option of a new Wireless Charging Case." type="image/jpeg" /&gt; &lt;link href="https://www.apple.com/newsroom/images/product/airpods/standard/Apple-AirPods-worlds-most-popular-wireless-headphones-hey-siri_03202019_big.jpg" rel="enclosure" title="The new AirPods feature the convenience of &amp;quot;Hey Siri&amp;quot; making it easier to change songs, make a call, adjust the volume or get directions." type="image/jpeg" /&gt; &lt;link href="https://www.apple.com/newsroom/images/product/airpods/standard/Apple-AirPods-worlds-most-popular-wireless-headphones_woman-wearing-airpods_03202019_big.jpg" rel="enclosure" title="Switching between iPhone, Apple Watch, iPad or Mac is two times faster with the new AirPods." type="image/jpeg" /&gt; </code></pre> <h3>Opportunities for Improvement</h3> <p>The CDATA comment aside, I&#8217;d love to see the body of the articles, the <code>content</code> element, contain richly formatted HTML. Their webpage certainly has beautifully formatted HTML.</p> <p><img src="/images/notional/apple-newsroom-article.png" title="Apple Press Release for their new AirPods" alt="Apple AirPods press release" srcset="/images/notional/apple-newsroom-article-2x.png 2x" class="img-fluid"></p> <p>The only HTML elements in use in their feed are:</p> <pre><code>&lt;a&gt; &lt;br/&gt; &lt;li&gt; &lt;strong&gt; &lt;ul&gt; </code></pre> <p>Where are the paragraph tags? Where are all the nice inline images? And if you notate all the content as CDATA, that doesn&#8217;t really help your formatting woes. Adding <code>&lt;content type="html"&gt;</code> would also help.</p> <p>Here is what their feed articles look like today in Feedly:</p> <p><img src="/images/notional/feedly-screenshot-airpods.png" title="Poorly formatted content in the Apple Newsroom RSS feed" alt="Screenshot of Apple Newsroom article in Feedly" srcset="/images/notional/feedly-screenshot-airpods-2x.png 2x" class="img-fluid"></p> <h3>Next Steps</h3> <p>I sent a thorough email to Apple&#8217;s Media Helpline email address and to the two folks listed as media contacts on the most recent article. As I should have expected, that&#8217;s not the right way to report a bug on their website. I received the following reply:</p> <p><img src="/images/notional/apple-reply-email.png" title="Apple's reply to my bug report" alt="Apple's email reply" srcset="/images/notional/apple-reply-email-2x.png 2x" class="img-fluid"></p> <p>Shucks. So I&#8217;m writing this post in hopes that someone on the Apple Newsroom team, or the team that maintains the CMS for the Newsroom team notices and fixes the feed. I love Atom feeds! And I know lots of other people do too.</p> <p>Thanks in advance for fixing up the feed, Apple.</p> <p>-Michael</p> Gutenberg and the Internet tag:mekstudios.com,2019-03-22:/2019/03/gutenberg-and-the-internet 2019-03-22T12:46:55-07:00 2019-03-22T12:46:55-07:00 Steven Pemberton <p>A neat presentation looking at the transition from Gutenberg and the printing press to the exponential growth of the Internet today.</p> NASA’s Visual Universe: Google Art tag:mekstudios.com,2019-03-22:/2019/03/nasas-visual-universe-google-art 2019-03-22T12:24:28-07:00 2019-03-22T12:24:28-07:00 Google <p>Google&#8217;s put together a neat way to browse the archive of NASA photography.</p> <blockquote> <p>To celebrate 60 years of NASA and 50 years of Project Apollo, the Google Arts &amp; Culture Lab has created NASA’s Visual Universe - an experiment drawing on NASA’s vast image archive.</p> <p>Using NASA’s public API, we explored 127,000 historic images stretching back to 1915, and analyzed them using machine learning - bringing surprising and interactive results.</p> <p>We especially used Google Cloud Natural Language to extract keywords and information from the archive.</p> </blockquote> Billions of Years tag:mekstudios.com,2019-03-18:/2019/03/billions-of-years 2019-03-18T17:56:05-07:00 2019-03-18T17:56:05-07:00 Michael E. Kirkpatrick <p>Hey Apple Newsroom team! You&#8217;ve got some bugs in your RSS feed.</p> <p>I discovered this bug recently after adding the Apple Newsroom feed to my <a href="https://feedly.com/">Feedly</a>. The expected behavior when you click on the title of an article in Feedly is that it takes you to the article on the source website. In Apple Newsroom&#8217;s case, it took me to a new tab. Odd.</p> <p><img src="/images/notional/newsroom-bad-url.png" title="Feedly article for the new Apple AirPods with a title link that points back to Feedly" alt="Bad URL in Apple RSS feed" srcset="/images/notional/newsroom-bad-url-2x.png 2x" class="img-fluid"></p> <p>I wrote Feedly support and got a quick reply from the CEO <a href="http://www.twitter.com/edwk">Edwin</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p>Thanks for the heads up Michael,<br /> We will take a look at this tomorrow.<br /> -Edwin<br /> Edwin K<br /> CEO</p> </blockquote> <p>I dug a little bit more, curious mostly, and found some interesting things.</p> <h2>The Newsroom RSS Feed</h2> <h3>Not RSS, rather Atom</h3> <p>Despite the feed URL referencing an RSS feed <a href="https://www.apple.com/newsroom/rss-feed.rss">https://www.apple.com/newsroom/rss-feed.rss</a>, the feed is an Atom feed.</p> <pre><code>&lt;feed xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"&gt; </code></pre> <p>That&#8217;s okay, it doesn&#8217;t really matter so long as the XML in the feed validates as Atom, and it does <a href="https://validator.w3.org/feed/check.cgi?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.apple.com%2Fnewsroom%2Frss-feed.rss">successfully validate</a> as a &#8220;valid Atom 1.0 feed&#8221;.</p> <h3>Lots of CDATA</h3> <p>For those who need a refresher, CDATA or character data, as defined by <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CDATA">Wikipedia</a>: &#8220;In an XML document or external parsed entity, a CDATA section is a section of element content that is marked for the parser to interpret purely as textual data, not as markup.&#8221;</p> <p>However, all the content in every tag in the feed begins with <code>&lt;![CDATA[</code>. Odd and unnecessary it seems.</p> <h3>The Bug: No Link Tag</h3> <p>What I discovered is that Apple&#8217;s Newsroom feed is malformed. Specifically, it includes the link to the article, for example the link to the most recent article &#8212; <a href="https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2019/03/airpods-the-worlds-most-popular-wireless-headphones-are-getting-even-better/">AirPods, the world’s most popular wireless headphones, are getting even better</a> &#8212; in the <code>id</code> tag. Again, odd.</p> <pre><code>&lt;id&gt;&lt;![CDATA[https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2019/03/airpods-the-worlds-most-popular-wireless-headphones-are-getting-even-better/]]&gt;&lt;/id&gt; </code></pre> <p>If you hop over to the <a href="https://validator.w3.org/feed/">W3 Feed Validation Service</a>, they&#8217;ve got a nice <a href="https://validator.w3.org/feed/docs/atom.html">summary of the Atom specification</a>, <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4287">RFC 4287</a>. As the page notes, the <code>link</code> element contained in the <code>entry</code> element &#8220;Identifies a related Web page. The type of relation is defined by the <code>rel</code> attribute. A feed is limited to one <code>alternate</code> per <code>type</code> and <code>hreflang</code>. A feed should contain a link back to the feed itself.&#8221;</p> <p>That&#8217;s where the link to the article should be, in the <code>link</code> tag, not in the <code>id</code> tag. The <code>id</code> tag &#8220;Identifies the entry using a universally unique and permanent URI.&#8221;</p> <h3>Link Tag used for Images</h3> <p>The Newsroom feed breaks the Atom standard here as well as it includes not a single <code>link</code> element for the article, but three, and they&#8217;re all images associated with the article not links to the article itself:</p> <pre><code>&lt;link href="https://www.apple.com/newsroom/images/product/airpods/standard/Apple-AirPods-worlds-most-popular-wireless-headphones_03202019_big.jpg" rel="enclosure" title="New AirPods build on the magical experience customers love delivering 50 percent more talk time, hands-free “Hey Siri” and the option of a new Wireless Charging Case." type="image/jpeg" /&gt; &lt;link href="https://www.apple.com/newsroom/images/product/airpods/standard/Apple-AirPods-worlds-most-popular-wireless-headphones-hey-siri_03202019_big.jpg" rel="enclosure" title="The new AirPods feature the convenience of &amp;quot;Hey Siri&amp;quot; making it easier to change songs, make a call, adjust the volume or get directions." type="image/jpeg" /&gt; &lt;link href="https://www.apple.com/newsroom/images/product/airpods/standard/Apple-AirPods-worlds-most-popular-wireless-headphones_woman-wearing-airpods_03202019_big.jpg" rel="enclosure" title="Switching between iPhone, Apple Watch, iPad or Mac is two times faster with the new AirPods." type="image/jpeg" /&gt; </code></pre> <h3>Opportunities for Improvement</h3> <p>The CDATA comment aside, I&#8217;d love to see the body of the articles, the <code>content</code> element, contain richly formatted HTML. Their webpage certainly has beautifully formatted HTML.</p> <p><img src="/images/notional/apple-newsroom-article.png" title="Apple Press Release for their new AirPods" alt="Apple AirPods press release" srcset="/images/notional/apple-newsroom-article-2x.png 2x" class="img-fluid"></p> <p>The only HTML elements in use in their feed are:</p> <pre><code>&lt;a&gt; &lt;br/&gt; &lt;li&gt; &lt;strong&gt; &lt;ul&gt; </code></pre> <p>Where are the paragraph tags? Where are all the nice inline images? And if you notate all the content as CDATA, that doesn&#8217;t really help your formatting woes. Adding <code>&lt;content type="html"&gt;</code> would also help.</p> <p>Here is what their feed articles look like today in Feedly:</p> <p><img src="/images/notional/feedly-screenshot-airpods.png" title="Poorly formatted content in the Apple Newsroom RSS feed" alt="Screenshot of Apple Newsroom article in Feedly" srcset="/images/notional/feedly-screenshot-airpods-2x.png 2x" class="img-fluid"></p> <h3>Next Steps</h3> <p>I sent a thorough email to Apple&#8217;s Media Helpline email address and to the two folks listed as media contacts on the most recent article. As I should have expected, that&#8217;s not the right way to report a bug on their website. I received the following reply:</p> <p><img src="/images/notional/apple-reply-email.png" title="Apple's reply to my bug report" alt="Apple's email reply" srcset="/images/notional/apple-reply-email-2x.png 2x" class="img-fluid"></p> <p>Shucks. So I&#8217;m writing this post in hopes that someone on the Apple Newsroom team, or the team that maintains the CMS for the Newsroom team, notices and fixes the feed. I love Atom feeds! And I know lots of other people do too.</p> <p>Thanks in advance for fixing up the feed, Apple.</p> <p>-Michael</p> Apple highlights best photos shot on iPhone around the world tag:mekstudios.com,2019-02-28:/2019/02/apple-highlights-best-photos-shot-on-iphone-around-the-world 2019-02-28T18:01:02-08:00 2019-02-28T18:01:02-08:00 Apple <p>I love photography. Back before Instagram, I built my own photography website and tried my hand at selling prints online (my mother was my only customer &#8212; thank you Mom).</p> <p>I no longer use Instagram &#8212; to me the platform commoditizes photography in a way that takes all the joy out of looking at and taking photos. Why take the time to compose, edit, and post a photo if it will only be seen for 1-3 seconds?</p> <p>That said, I&#8217;m glad there are photographers out there in the world who choose to spend their time composing and sharing great photography. Apple has chosen their latest round of &#8220;Shot on iPhone&#8221; photographs &#8212; from Instagram no less &#8212; and they chose some very good pieces. I hope people continue to share beautiful compositions like these and that they find venues in which they can be appreciated.</p> Opportunity Rover tag:mekstudios.com,2019-02-14:/2019/02/opportunity-rover 2019-02-14T14:16:02-08:00 2019-02-14T14:16:02-08:00 Randall Monroe <p><img src="https://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/opportunity_rover.png" title="Thanks for bringing us along." alt="Opportunity Rover" srcset="https://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/opportunity_rover_2x.png 2x"></p> In Memoriam, Walter Munk, Iconic Oceanographer, 1917-2019 tag:mekstudios.com,2019-02-13:/2019/02/in-memoriam-walter-munk-iconic-oceanographer-1917-2019 2019-02-13T10:18:39-08:00 2019-02-13T10:18:39-08:00 Robert Monroe <p>A titan of a scientist.</p> <blockquote> <p>Walter Munk, who gave the Allies a strategic edge in World War II, helped nurture a university into existence, and became a living synonym for oceanography, died February 8 at his home in La Jolla, Calif. He was 101.</p> <p>As a geophysicist at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego, Munk made groundbreaking observations of waves, ocean temperature, tidal energy in the deep ocean, ocean acoustics and the rotation of the earth. As an advocate of science and broader scholarship, Munk served as an advisor to presidents and the Pentagon and conferred with public figures including the Dalai Lama and Pope Francis. His convictions led him to refuse to sign a loyalty oath required by the University of California during the peak of anti-communist fervor in the early 1950s and his passion helped create the architecture that would become the defining style of the Scripps Oceanography campus.</p> <p>Munk’s contributions to science throughout the latter half of the 20th Century and into the present century were measured not only in terms of the new knowledge his research yielded, but in the quality and diversity of the questions he considered. An ethos he expressed throughout his career was for scientists to take risks, pursue new directions, and embrace the educational value of failure.</p> </blockquote> John Dingell: My last words for America tag:mekstudios.com,2019-02-11:/2019/02/john-dingell-my-last-words-for-america 2019-02-11T14:04:30-08:00 2019-02-11T14:04:30-08:00 John D. Dingell <p>A follow up to the item posted on Friday.</p> <blockquote> <p>John D. Dingell, a Michigan Democrat who served in the U.S. House from 1955 to 2015, was the longest-serving member of Congress in American history. He dictated these reflections to his wife, Rep. Debbie Dingell (D-Mich.), at their home in Dearborn, on Feb. 7, the day he died.</p> <p>One of the advantages to knowing that your demise is imminent, and that reports of it will not be greatly exaggerated, is that you have a few moments to compose some parting thoughts&#8230;</p> <p>My personal and political character was formed in a different era that was kinder, if not necessarily gentler. We observed modicums of respect even as we fought, often bitterly and savagely, over issues that were literally life and death to a degree that — fortunately – we see much less of today.</p> </blockquote> <p>Well worth a read in full. I especially resonated with this: &#8220;In democratic government, elected officials do not <em>have</em> power. They <em>hold</em> power — in trust for the people who elected them. If they misuse or abuse that public trust, it is quite properly revoked (the quicker the better).&#8221;</p> The sexualized messages dress codes are sending to students tag:mekstudios.com,2019-02-11:/2019/02/the-sexualized-messages-dress-codes-are-sending-to-students 2019-02-11T09:16:17-08:00 2019-02-11T09:16:17-08:00 Amber Thomas <blockquote> <p>Although “dress codes” implies that they merely regulate the clothes that students can wear, we found that 77% of schools’ policies specifically prohibit the visibility of certain body parts&#8230;Policies like these have recently come under scrutiny due to the sexual tone they communicate. At best, students receive the message that those body parts are bad, should be hidden, or are important to others. At worst, dress codes go so far as to turn whole people into a collection of inappropriate body parts to cover.</p> </blockquote> <p>As someone who was active in various aspects of student government and had visibility into the administrative functions of education, I agree that this is a subject that can be better addressed in schools. At the end of her article, Amber links to a <a href="https://noworegon.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/12/2018/01/or_now_model_student_dress_code_feb_2016__1_.pdf">Model Student Dress Code</a> developed by the Oregon chapter of the National Organization for Women that I liked and would suggest to any administrator who is reviewing or updating their school&#8217;s dress code.</p> Spotify’s Podcast Aggregation Play tag:mekstudios.com,2019-02-09:/2019/02/spotifys-podcast-aggregation-play 2019-02-09T08:42:20-08:00 2019-02-09T08:42:20-08:00 Ben Thompson <p>If podcasts become subscription based (think Netflix for podcasts) the industry as we know it will dramatically change. Currently a podcast has a &#8220;feed&#8221; that&#8217;s similar an RSS feed. Accessible by lots of different podcast apps and technologies. If podcasts start going behind walls, its significantly reduces the access to this information. I certainly can see the business case (there&#8217;s money to be made), but it would be a significant change for the industry.</p> Invisible Formatting tag:mekstudios.com,2019-02-08:/2019/02/invisible-formatting 2019-02-08T17:15:09-08:00 2019-02-08T17:15:09-08:00 Randall Munroe <p>I love the caption: &#8220;When editing text, in the back of my mind I always worry that I&#8217;m adding invisible formatting that will somehow cause a problem in the distant future.&#8221; So true!</p> I Served in Congress Longer Than Anyone. Here’s How to Fix It. tag:mekstudios.com,2019-02-08:/2019/02/i-served-in-congress-longer-than-anyone-heres-how-to-fix-it 2019-02-08T16:44:21-08:00 2019-02-08T16:44:21-08:00 John D. Dingell <p>Interesting perspective. John Dingell <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2019/02/07/politics/john-dingell-dead/index.html">passed away yesterday</a>.</p> <blockquote> <p>In my six decades in public service, I’ve seen many changes in our nation and its institutions. Yet the most profound change I’ve witnessed is also the saddest. It is the complete collapse in respect for virtually every institution of government and an unprecedented cynicism about the nobility of public service itself.</p> <p>These are not just the grumblings of an angry old man lamenting the loss of “the good old days.” In December 1958, almost exactly three years after I entered the House of Representatives, the first American National Election Study, initiated by the University of Michigan, found that 73 percent of Americans trusted the federal government “to do the right thing almost always or most of the time.” As of December 2017, the same study, now conducted by the nonpartisan Pew Research Center, found that this number had plummeted to just 18 percent.</p> </blockquote> <p>In summary:</p> <ul> <li>An electoral system based on full participation</li> <li>The elimination of money in campaigns</li> <li>The end of minority rule in our legislative and executive branches</li> <li>The protection of an independent press</li> </ul> 2018 Fourth Warmest Year in Continued Warming Trend, According to NASA, NOAA tag:mekstudios.com,2019-02-08:/2019/02/2018-fourth-warmest-year-in-continued-warming-trend-according-to-nasa-noaa 2019-02-08T16:39:49-08:00 2019-02-08T16:39:49-08:00 NASA <p>The lede: &#8220;Earth&#8217;s global surface temperatures in 2018 were the fourth warmest since 1880, according to independent analyses by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).&#8221;</p> <p>The meat, interestingly enough in a chart caption: &#8220;This line plot shows yearly temperature anomalies from 1880 to 2018, with respect to the 1951-1980 mean&#8230;Though there are minor variations from year to year, all five temperature records show peaks and valleys in sync with each other. All show rapid warming in the past few decades, and all show the past decade has been the warmest.&#8221;</p> <p>Bottom line: our climate in changing. You can debate the why, and bring politics into it if you must, but temperature data is data. It is the truth. Our planet is warming at a significant pace, unparalleled in our recorded history.</p> <p>See also: <a href="http://xkcd.com/1732/">Earth Temperature Timeline</a> from XKCD in 2016.</p> How To Be Successful tag:mekstudios.com,2019-02-01:/2019/02/how-to-be-successful 2019-02-01T11:46:57-08:00 2019-02-01T11:46:57-08:00 Sam Altman <blockquote> <p>I’ve observed thousands of founders and thought a lot about what it takes to make a huge amount of money or to create something important. Usually, people start off wanting the former and end up wanting the latter.</p> <p>Here are 13 thoughts about how to achieve such outlier success. Everything here is easier to do once you’ve already reached a baseline degree of success (through privilege or effort) and want to put in the work to turn that into outlier success. [1] But much of it applies to anyone.</p> </blockquote>